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Third Party Validations

The following research provides validation for the efficacy of 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) as an effective anticancer therapeutic. As known among those researching 3BP, the  formulation to deliver this molecule is paramount in developing  a stable therapeutic agent that may be used as a drug in humans or animals. Therefore, these studies verify the potential efficacy of 3BP utilized in KoDiscovery Anticancer Technology (KAT), although Dr. Ko's patented formulation is unavailable for general research, unless specifically authorized by KoDiscovery, LLC.

All cancers

3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) a fast acting, promising, powerful, specific, and effective "small molecule" anti-cancer agent taken from labside to bedside: introduction to a special issue. Pedersen PL.

Mitochondria in relation to cancer metastasis: introduction to a mini-review series. Pedersen PL.

The cancer cell’s “power plants” as promising therapeutic targets: An overview. Pedersen PL.

Antitumor action of 3-bromopyruvate implicates reorganized tumor growth regulatory components of tumor milieu, cell cycle arrest and induction of mitochondria-dependent tumor cell death. Yadav S, Kujur PK, Pandey SK, Goel Y, Maurya BN, Verma A, Kumar A, Singh RP, Singh SM.

Leukemia/ Lymphoma

Regulation of death induction and chemosensitizing action of 3-bromopyruvate in myeloid leukemia cells: energy depletion, oxidative stress, and protein kinase activity modulation.

Calviño E, Estañ MC, Sánchez-Martín C, Brea R, de Blas E, Boyano-Adánez Mdel C, Rial E, Aller P.

Inhibition of glycolysis modulates prednisolone resistance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Hulleman E, Kazemier KM, Holleman A, VanderWeele DJ, Rudin CM, Broekhuis MJ, Evans WE, Pieters R, Den Boer ML.


A comparative analysis of inhibitors of the glycolysis pathway in breast and ovarian cancer cell line models. Xintaropoulou C, Ward C, Wise A, Marston H, Turnbull A, Langdon SP.

Targeting glycolysis by 3-bromopyruvate improves tamoxifen cytotoxicity of breast cancer cell lines. Attia YM, El-Abhar HS, Al Marzabani MM, Shouman SA.


The energy blocker inside the power house: mitochondria targeted delivery of 3-bromopyruvate. Marrache S, Dhar S.

3-Bromopyruvate induces rapid human prostate cancer cell death by affecting cell energy metabolism, GSH pool and the glyoxalase system. Valenti D, Vacca RA, de Bari L.


Systemic delivery of microencapsulated 3-bromopyruvate for the therapy of pancreatic cancer. Chapiro J, Sur S, Savic LJ, Ganapathy-Kanniappan S, Reyes J, Duran R, Thiruganasambandam SC, Moats CR, Lin M, Luo W, Tran PT, Herman JM, Semenza GL, Ewald AJ, Vogelstein B, Geschwind JF.


Flow cytometric evaluation of the effects of 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) and dichloracetate (DCA) on THP-1 cells: a multiparameter analysis. Verhoeven HA, van Griensven LJ.


Enhanced antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate in combination with rapamycin in vivo and in vitro. Zhang Q, Pan J, Lubet RA, Komas SM, Kalyanaraman B, Wang Y, You M.


Glutamine deprivation enhances antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate through the stabilization of monocarboxylate transporter-1. Cardaci S, Rizza S, Filomeni G, Bernardini R, Bertocchi F, Mattei M, Paci M, Rotilio G, Ciriolo MR.

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