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Scientific Research Publications

American Journal of Cancer Research

Volume 12, Number 11:4879-5350; 2022

"3-Bromopyruvate Inhibits Pancreatic Tumor Growth by Stalling Glycolysis, and Dismantling Mitochondria in a Syngeneic Mouse Model"

The article referenced above has just been published in the AJCR in their November, 2022 edition. After our own November announcement of the start of enrollment in the NewG Lab Pharma clinical trial for hepatocellular carcinoma, the significance of this additional validation of a mouse model study showing KoDiscovery Anticancer Technology's (KAT's) efficacy against pancreatic cancer cannot be overstated.

This study was completed as a collaborative project with the Radiation Oncology Research Department at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. For the last five years, the University of Maryland has been an important partner with Dr. Ko to provide independent confirmation of her work validating the efficacy of KAT. A University of Maryland future study is currently in the planning stages, which will seek to determine the impact of a longer KAT protocol on cancer stem cells and the metastatic spread of pancreatic cancer.

Highlights and key points from the study abstract are shown below and

the NIH link to the full journal article may be found below.

  • Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth-most-deadly cancer in the United States with a 5-year survival rate of only 8%. The majority of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer undergo chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy (RT).

  • 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BP) is a promising anticancer drug against pancreatic cancer. It exerts potent anticancer effects by inhibiting hexokinase II enzyme (HK2) of the glycolytic pathway in cancer cells while not affecting the normal cells.

  • 3-BP killed 95% of Panc-2 cells... and severely inhibited ATP production by disrupting the interaction between HK2 and mitochondrial Voltage Dependent Anion Channel-1 (VDAC1) protein.

  • Electron microscopy data revealed that 3-BP severely damaged the mitochondrial membrane in cancer cells.

  • Immunohistochemistry data showed complete inhibition of hexokinase II (HK2) and TGFβ, in animals treated with 3-BP drug.

  • We also observed enhanced expression of active caspase-3 in tumor tissues exhibiting apoptotic death.

  • Importantly, we also observed inhibition in lactic acid production responsible for tumor aggression.

  • These results provide new evidence that 3-BP severely inhibits glucose metabolism in cancer cells by blocking hexokinase II, and disrupting mitochondria by suppressing BCL2L1 in pancreatic cancer.

November 14, 2018

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Breakthrough Study


Anti-cancer Agent

Glucose Catabolism in

Rat Liver Tumors

Trojan Horse.jpg
Inducing cell death in cancer.jpg

Targeting Cancer Cell's Power Plants with 3BP

Additional research articles are available
by clicking on the Titles below:

"The HK2 Dependent “Warburg Effect” and Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation in Cancer:
Targets for Effective Therapy with 3-Bromopyruvate"

"Mitochondrial bound type II hexokinase: a key player in the growth and survival of many cancers
and an ideal prospect for therapeutic intervention"

"Hexokinase II: Cancer’s double-edged sword acting as both facilitator and
gatekeeper of malignancy when bound to mitochondria"

"A translational study “case report” on the small molecule “energy blocker” 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) as
a potent anticancer agent: from bench side to bedside"

"Hexokinase-2 bound to mitochondria: Cancer’s stygian link to the “Warburg effect”
and a pivotal target for effective therapy"

"The pivotal roles of mitochondria in cancer: Warburg and beyond and
encouraging prospects for effective therapies"

"3-Bromopyruvate: A novel antifungal agent against the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans"

"The anticancer agent 3-bromopyruvate: a simple but powerful molecule taken from the lab to the bedside"

"Transport and cytotoxicity of the anticancer drug 3-bromopyruvatein the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae"

"Glutathione may have implications in the design of 3-bromopyruvate treatment protocols for both fungal and algal infections as well as multiple myeloma"

"Killing multiple myeloma cells with the small molecule3-bromopyruvate: implications for therapy"

"Screening the yeast genome for energetic metabolism pathways involved in a phenotypic response to the anti-cancer agent 3-bromopyruvate"

"Transport of 3-Bromopyruvate across the human erythrocyte membrane" 


Find More Studies Below Scientific Contributions by Dr. Ko

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